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The comma is a necessary instrument in the writer’s toolbox. Commas can be quite helpful to indicate to a reader that you, the writer, are pausing in your sentence flow; but they can also, if you let them, stop the reader too often and, unnecessarily, as in this sentence. The word “comma” comes from the Greek word kómma, meaning, cut off piece. In the above sentence you can see how pieces were indeed cut off from the main part of the sentence: “the writer” and “if you let it” being examples. The comma is used in lists (1,2,3,….), for the separation of independent clauses (I used go swimming all the time, but now I get in the water only sometimes), and to hive off various things (parenthetical phrases) in the sentence which are not part of the main, or independent, clause. Parenthetical phrases are a fun way to use a comma, by giving information that is not essential to the sentence. But, while not essential they can, in my opinion, be fairly close to it.
Consider this example:
~The Roman Emperor Constantine, while on the road to Rome, had a vision.~
While the sentence doesn’t need “while on the road to Rome,” it sure fills out the context for the sentence and looks like very important information for the reader. So, while not essential, it looks pretty close to it. Of course there are other ways to make this sentence, even without commas, but the point here is to use them.
Another thing I like about commas is their use in a longer sentence where you get a few of those extra pieces thrown in, but the trick is making them flow so the reader continues tracking with you. Consider the following example:
~In all but a few cases, when making bread it is important to have a hot oven, up to 500 degrees, that is, if possible, to ensure that you get a proper rise.~
In this sentence, the author throws in three extra pieces, but the question is, do those extras throw the reader off and break up the flow between the words “oven” and “to ensure?” You can probably see that the writer is just at the edge of what a reader should be expected to stop and consider in the middle of the sentence, but throwing in one more would be inadvisable, such as:
~ In all but a few cases, when making bread it is important to have a hot oven, up to 500 degrees, that is, if possible, especially in light of the variability in oven temperature maximums, to ensure that you get a proper rise~
You can see how this seems strained, as if there was butter scraped over too much bread, as it were, and by the time we get to “to ensure,” we are only just able to connect it to the mother clause. But it is not that the sentence is too long; long sentences can be very effective if put together well. Consider this:
~Similar to scientists applying formula and technique to their matter in order to come up with physical laws, historians must engage in a critical analysis of the recorded actions of historical figures in order to suggest, not laws, but explanations of the probable motivations, whether internal or external, which best explain the actions of these people in light of other historical examples and the common experiences of human kind, including our own experience.
In this example, much longer than the previous one, there is much more detail, but because there are less extra pieces thrown in, non-essentials, as it were, we can follow and understand it more easily.
Use commas to throw in extra pieces to help the reader have a better understanding of context, but don’t throw in too many. Be kind to your readers, they are doing you the honor of reading your work, after all.
 See generally P.H. Nowell-Smith, Are Historical Events Unique?, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, New Series, vol. 57 (1956-1957): 107-160. Nowell-Smith makes a number of interesting observations germane to the question of historical events and entities, a few of which I will note here: “…despotism, the bourgeoisie and the Holy Roman Empire are all entities.” (140); “…historians use general words, and the use of such words presupposes the recognition of similarities. To talk of the Revolutions of 1688, 1789, and 1848 is already to recognize these events as similar in some respects.” [And yet for the historian who studies the Revolution of 1688, he recognizes there is no such thing as a typical revolution.] (117); “Explanation in history often takes the form, not of discovering the events with which a given event is causally connected in the regularity sense, but in expounding in detail in what the given event consisted.” (135).
The footnote is just a bonus for those interested, and to encourage the practice of citation in your own work. Always credit ideas you got from another person, unless what you are borrowing amounts to general knowledge: such as the fact that apples are a food horses like to eat. Who cares who wrote it first, it is general knowledge so don’t be afraid to use it. The trick is determining when a fact becomes so specific that it is no longer general knowledge. For instance, if I read somewhere that in a recent study it was found that horses preferred green apples, then I should cite that author and the study they cite for two reasons. The most important is that it is not general knowledge and you are taking specific information in the form of a claim about a fact from a source; the other less important reason is because if that information is something that interests the reader or the reader thinks it might be wrong for some reason, such as they have a horse that eats only red apples and spits the green ones out, they can then read it for themselves given your proper citation. So, in this post the comma was highlighted, next time I will talk about the semi-colon.
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People often spend too much time on Facebook. The site is not intrinsically a bad one, it’s just that people are pummeled with far too much information, given human nature. For many millennia, humans lived in communities where the good or bad news they heard about was from within, perhaps, one hundred miles at the outside. With the introduction of mass media in the last two hundred or so years — I refer to the increasingly wide availability of it and not its mere arrival — we are getting far too much bad news, useless news, and random facts about other peoples lives that tend to pull us away from the things we should be doing: working on things to improve our own lives. We need to develop skills in Time Management.
Working is important. But working is not all just ‘work’, so to speak. Improving yourself by exercising, reading, creating or building something, helping others, etc., are examples of things that would fall under the rubric (heading) of what I have indicated above as “working on.” There are so many things we could be working on, right? Well, it may be an idea, then, to choose one and begin it so that we can accomplish something besides time on the internet. Sometimes, there are so many things to do we feel overwhelmed, and do not do anything instead. But, if we take the most important few things, and do those in manageable stages, we will have accomplished things that needed to get done, and however overly simplistic this formula seems to appear, it works. This blog is about writing, and writing things down can be a useful way to help you with your time management and make sure you get things done.
It was once said that “what gets written down, gets done.” I make use of the wisdom of this proverb on a regular basis, and it helps. I just make a list of the things I need to do, the familiar “to do list”, and I try to accomplish as many as I can. I do not put too many things on the list, because my lists are usually for one day only, and it is better to focus on a few things that need to get done and get them done, rather than expecting yourself to do more than you are able to do in a given day. And besides, if it needs to get done, then you want to give that task lots of wiggle room and not crowd it with too much other, less important, work.
Completing the important things we need to do can be negatively impacted by the time we spend each day on the internet, doing whatever it is we do there. Mostly, we are filling our minds looking at other people’s lives, opinions, and latest news, but the important thing is we are spending time reading about other people’s lives. But for each hour we do, we are not spending that hour on our own life. Remember, as you spend time and energy on the bustling world of internet updates, in some sense you are taking it away from what should go towards your own daily “updates”, your life. Consider this quote from Horace Mann:
Horace Mann 1796-1859
Editors can help us in the process of writing better. They tend to convert writing from unclear to clearer. There is no clear, remember that. Perfect writings do not exist. Like one of my professors once told me, you can always go back to a piece of writing and make changes, no matter how far along in the process of writing you are; even if you have published a work, there will always be changes you could have made. So if clear writing is actually non-existent, then clearer writing is the goal that every writer should aim for. In an important sense, to be clearer is clear enough. I think there are three simple ways you can, generally, make your own writing clearer.
- The Second Set of Eyes principle – Having someone else read your written work, anyone who can read basically, can help you immeasurably, and here is why. All people read in rhythms and cadence with various levels of comprehension. So, have the people you have read your writing highlight those areas that they trip up on in their natural reading rhythm, and have them indicate at what point they paused. Then, go back and read those passages again to see if a change is warranted. The fact is, you are your own worst critic at times, and this is one of those times. Think about it, if there is an error with your sentence flow, and you “should” have caught it, you would have, but you didn’t. Having more than one person read your work is also a good idea, but as indicated above, no written work is perfect, so leave perfection behind and merely aim to write in as clear a way as possible
- Time heals all “words” – The second practice is connected to the first, but the person reading it again is you. I suggest you take some time in between readings. Oftentimes, once a piece of writing is complete, if you leave a day or two, or even longer if you have time, in between the time you wrote it and when you read it again, you will find things you want to change to make your writing clearer.
- Connecting your dots – The third practice is to make sure your writing is connected. This applies to sentences, paragraphs, and body. Think of your work as a chain which pulls your idea/thesis closer to the person reading it as they go through it. It is important that none of the links in this chain fail. A sentence ought to be connected to the one that preceded it, a paragraph to the one before, and this applies to chapters as well.
These are a few ways to get you on the path to writing more clearly.
If you have any questions about what I have written here, send me a message — happy to make the meaning clearer. You can find my contact info here.